Rationale: A treatment protocol for musician's dystonia developed by Byl consists of the cessation of abnormal movements, avoidance of heavy gripping of instruments (e.g., pens, musical instruments), sensory retraining, and mental rehearsal of the target movement without overt body movement. After completing the protocol, all participants in Byl's study showed improvement in strength, stereognosis, motor control, and other clinical measures. Improvement in motor control was accompanied by improvement in the organization of somatosensory cortex. Because the muscle contractions are caused by basal ganglia dysfunction, attempts at treating the disorder by stretching the muscles are ineffective. Heat, cold, and exercise may be helpful to relieve pain and/or spasms.