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Of the following situations, which one would be an example of a maladaptive cellular change?

An 18-year-old body builder who has developed extremely large pectoral muscles following years of weight lifting
A 31-year-old marathon runner who has developed hypertrophied myocardial cells
A 54-year-old female who has developed ovarian atrophy following loss of estrogen stimulation during menopause
A 44-year-old male with a 60-pack-per year smoking history who was diagnosed with a histological grade 3 lung cancer

  • #1
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In many adaptive cellular responses, the expression of the differentiation genes is altered. When working with cancer patients, histological grade or differentiation refers to how much the tumor cells resemble normal cells of the same tissue type. In body builders and athletes, cells' hypertrophy is based on the increase in workload placed on the muscle. Reproductive atrophy is expected due to the loss of estrogen stimulation during menopause.

  • #2
Thank you for your help.